Abstract: In 1929, a light redshift was discovered in distant galaxies and was interpreted as produced by galaxies moving away from each other at high speed. This interpretation led to the consideration of a new source of energy, which was called Dark Energy. Redshift is a loss of light wave frequency produced by galaxies moving away at high speed, but the loss of frequency can also be produced by the friction of light waves on their way to Earth. This friction is impossible because outer space is empty, but if it were not empty and a medium existed in this empty space, it would be possible. The consequences would be extraordinary because Universe acceleration and Dark Energy would be in doubt. This article presents evidence that empty space is actually a medium occupied by different particles, among them the most significant would-be Graviton or Higgs Boson, because let's not forget that gravity also affects empty space.

Keywords: Big Bang, Dark Energy, Doppler Effect, Redshift, Starlight frequency reduction, Universe Acceleration,


The existing matter in the universe can be differentiated into 3 parts: Stars and galaxies we observe in the sky, according to astronomers would only account for 5%, [ 1]. 27% Dark Matter and 68% by the so-called Dark Energy. Dark Energy is a mystery: Considering Starlight waves frequency reduce, in the same way that water waves lose frequency as they propagate, could solve this, mystery.


Different colors keep light waves different frequency.

First off, let us take a look at the colors.
Why do we see different colors? The reason is the frequency at which the light waves reach our eyes.

Figure 1: Yellow and red color waves
The light waves in the upper yellow box reach us more frequently than the red waves that reach us more widely spaced in time (less frequently).

In 1929, [2] Edwin Hubble, the American astronomer who gave the space telescope its name, observed distant stars and galaxies from the Mount Wilson telescope and realized that their light, instead of yellow or white, came in a more reddish hue. In other words, their waves arrived with less frequency than they should carry.

Figure 2:Observation a nearby and distant star
He come to the conclusion that this change in color and frequency occurred because the galaxies were moving away from us at great speed and consequently of the speed of light of the galaxies directed to us, we had to subtract the speed at which the galaxies are moving away in the opposite direction. In this subtraction was where the waves lost the frequency that they should initially have and that is why they arrived with that reddish hue; it was the so-called [3]. Doppler Effect. The entire Universe was expanding at great speed, it is as if we were inflating a balloon. If we project the film about the expansion of the Universe in reverse, we will find an initial moment of that expansion, which would be the great explosion or Big Bang. On the other hand, the more distant the galaxies were; the more its red-shifted waves arrived, however, in nearby galaxies, there was hardly a redshift; it seemed that the galaxies not only are moving away from each other but are accelerating their speed along the way. But for there to be acceleration, the initial inertia of the Big Bang is not enough; we need something to hit the gas. That fuel needed to accelerate is what we call Dark Energy. According to [4]. Einstein's Theory of Relativity, energy is equivalent to mass E=MC2, or in other words, mass is the fuel we need for the Universe to expand rapidly. For accelerated expansion to take place, a mass-energy is necessary; or matter in the Universe much higher than what we observe with the naked eye, we would need a matter-energy that would account for 68 % of the total matter in the Universe. But, where is that 68% of invisible matter-energy? The answer to this question would be what we call the Enigma of Dark Energy.


However, there is an explanation to the Enigma of Dark Energy: and it would come from the hand of what in physics we call [5]. Standard Model: which affirms the existence of a tiny particle that carries gravity and that today we call the Higgs Boson. The entire Universe would be full of these Higgs Bosons, since the force of gravity is manifested throughout them. In the vicinity of Black Holes, there would be a large number of Higgs Bosons, and in empty space, there would be a minimal number of these Higgs Bosons. The Higgs Boson would be present as a blanket that would cover the entire Universe.

Figure: 3 Higgs Bosons covering empty space In the image we will represent this blanket that covers the Universe, and the black points would be Higgs Bosons. In the empty space there would therefore be an invisible fog with a low concentration of Higgs bosons. We must consider light as a wave [8]. (Young's experiment) that travels through a medium; in this case we can consider the medium as the Higgs Boson fabric in our known Universe.


The disturbance caused by a wave is propagated by collisions of the particles that make up the medium, in this case Higgs Bosons when transmitting their thrust each collides with the neighboring one, in each of these collisions some kinetic energy is lost, and this gradual loss of kinetic energy of the Bosons, ultimately translates into a loss of frequency in the propagation of light waves.

Figura 4: Water waves

In the image we see how the outer water waves that have traveled further are widening and lose frequency with respect to the inner waves. This is a very common phenomenon in nature. Then, light waves would suffer a very slight loss of frequency when propagating through Higgs Bosons medium, but this slight loss of frequency would accumulate over the space of millions of light years, which would gradually slow down the frequency, causing us to observe them redshifted in their spectrum upon reaching Earth.

Fig.5: Close star observation with Higgs Bosons fabric.

Figure 6: Distant star observation with Higgs Bosons fabric.

Decrease in frequency of light waves would cause them to redshift. An apparent Doppler Effect would occur. This gradual frequency slowdown of the waves would explain and constitute the proof why the most distant galaxies apparently move away with greater speed than the closest ones; light waves lose frequency for a longer way until they reach the Earth.


A. Light as particle and light as wave

Figure 7: Light as a particle

Considering starlight as a particle would not cover all the surrounding space and from a distant planet the star could not be seen.

Figure 8: Light as wave

Consideration of starlight as a wave covers all the surrounding space and from a distant planet the star could be seen.

B. Gravity affects light.

[6]. Eddington confirmed that gravity, affects the light path, on an expedition to the island of Sao Tome, in equatorial Africa, to photograph an eclipse in which it was assumed, that the light from distant stars would bend as it passed close to the Sun.

Fig.9 Starlight bends as it passes near the sun


A. [7]. James Webb

Although to date the expansion of the universe has not been questioned, however some of the consequences of the expansion, such as the Big Bang, are beginning to be questioned today, especially with the information that comes to us from the James Webb telescope; in deep space at the origins of the Universe, galaxies are already perfectly formed and not in formation as should be expected at the origin and near Big Bang

B. Acceleration between galaxies.

Fig:10 Acceleration between galaxies

After [2]. Hubble observed on starlight spectrum a Waves Redshift and deduced; galaxies move away from each other. If we observe this move as if it were a movie and if we project backwards, we would reach an initial point that we call the Big Bang or Big explosion. Starting from the beginning of the Universe with the Big Bang, we could deduce the position of Galaxies on it: Let's imagine that the Milky Way is the one marked with the letter B on the Figure 10; by directing our telescope to galaxy A, we should subtract the speed and acceleration of A from the acceleration and speed of B (Earth) and thus we would obtain the acceleration that separates Earth from Galaxy A. Directing our telescope to galaxy C we should subtract the speed and acceleration of B (Earth) from the acceleration and speed of C and thus we would obtain the acceleration that separates B (Earth) from C. If the distance between A-B is the same as between B-C; The acceleration between B and C should be much higher than between A and B, because greater distance from Big Bang; greater acceleration must be. But the observation of distant Galaxies does not say that, simply; greater the distance from the Earth; greater acceleration. Experience shows that Universe expansion and Big Bang do not behave as they should. However, the frequency reduction proposed in this article would fit with the experience of the Observation of the Universe: "Greater distance, greater redshift" since the starlight on its way to Earth gradually reduces its frequency.


The consequences of this interpretation would suddenly explain 68 % of the matter-energy that lack in the Universe: this matter would not be necessary because the Universe would not expand rapidly. However, it would leave the Big Bang orphaned of its most important test, since the expansion of the Universe would be in doubt. As there is no accelerated expansion of the Universe, we no longer need the engine of this expansion: Dark Energy. The existence of a static or still Universe would not be proven either, it would simply be necessary to take new measurements taking into account this effect Waves Frequency Reduction Ockham's razor tells us that between two possible solutions the simplest is the correct one. [2]. Hubble's prescribed solution to redshift leads us to Dark Energy and to the unknown of where 68% of the matter is in the universe and to the possibility of the existence of repulsive gravity. The Waves Frequency Reduction solution does not require the existence of Dark Energy, nor 68% of matter disappeared in the Universe, nor a repulsive gravity. Choose for yourself the solution to this enigma.


[1] Fritz ZwickyIn :1933 he was the first to suggest the presence of invisible matter between galaxies, following his observations at the Mount Wilson Observatory, locating seven cases in the Coma cluster, but he could not convince his colleagues about the importance of his discovery, which remained forgotten for almost forty years [2] Hubble, Edwin (1929). "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. [3] Doppler, Christian (1846). Beitrage zur fixsternenkunde. Vol. 69. Prague: G. Haase Sohne. Bibcode:1846befi.book [4] Albert Einstein 26 September 1905 Special relativity paper published on titled "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies [5] 1964 Peter Higgs y Gerald Guralnik , CR Hagen y Tom Kibbleglert. The three articles written about discovery of bosons by Higgs, Brout y Englert , y Guralnik , Hagen , Kibble Robert Brout - Physical Review Letters [6] Eddington published the article "The total eclipse of 1919 May 29 and the influence of gravitation on light" in March 2019 in The Observatory magazine. confirmed that gravity, as Einstein predicted, affects the light path, on an expedition to the island of Sao Tome, in equatorial Africa, to photograph an eclipse in which it was assumed, that the light from distant stars would bend as it passed close to the Sun. On November 17, 1919, London Times. [7] 12-1-2023 ยท The Latest James Webb Image Reveals New Clues About the Origins of the Universe Webb's groundbreaking image of the star-forming region known as NGC 346 [8] From a book published in 1807 relating lectures given by Young in 1802 to London's Royal Institution.

Biography Angel Perez Sanchez, born on 1961 in Madrid, Spain and study in Comillas (ICADE) University (Madrid-Spain), and get legal-lawyer degree on 1986. He worked as Bank Manager on Banco Santander. Books:"Unveiling mysteries of magnetism"; "The book of life, Evolutionary Memory"; "Finally a Reasonable Theory of Everything" E-Mail: angelperez94@gmail.com Mr,Angel, member of RSEF Real Sociedad Espanola de Fisica. *** Get Best Presentation Award on International Conference on Condensed Matter Physics, Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism ICCMPDP in August 2023 in Barcelona with presentation Magnetic Lines of Force & Diamagnetism *** Get Best Presentation Award on International Conference on Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and Explanatory Models, October 2023 in London, ICAUDEEM, with presentation Consideration of Starlight Waves Redshift as Produced by Friction of These Waves on Its Way through Space

This article has been registered on the Madrid Territorial Copyright Register (20-10-2008) under file no. 12/rtpi-008541/2008